Thursday, January 4, 2018

Upadesha Saram Verse 8

In the first two verses, we saw that Shri Ramana criticizes karma as incapable of giving us what we really want in our life, which is permanent peace and  security  called as param, which is in other words, freedom from limitation. Then in verse 3, 4, 5 Shri Ramana, shows that karma is not totally useless. It is capable of giving us antah-karana shuddhi, when there is the attitude of karma-yoga in the form of ishvara-arpitam karma, and the attitude of prasada-buddhi -  the attitude gracious acceptance of all life-situations, pleasant and unpleasant, knowing them to be coming from the Lord as the giver of all results of actions. The main aim of karma-yoga being gaining mastery over one's ways of thinking. 
We saw before that when there is mastery over one’s mind we find ourselves:-
1.Comfortable with our self and the world.
2. We enjoy a non-reactive mind and therefore growing degrees of calmness and cheerfulness.
3. We become less and less emotionally dependent on the world for our sense of well-being – this is because, we are no longer bound by our raga-devsha.
4. Consequently our desire for self-knowledge grows and we are able to spend more and more time and energy for our sadhanas and for study.
In verse 6 Shri Ramana touched on meditation or upasana in the form of silent japa. We saw that upasana is defined as a flow of thoughts centered on the Lord, undistracted by dissimilar thoughts. Shri Ramana compared this flow of thoughts in verse 7, to the continuous flow of a thick viscous fluid like ghee poured from one vessel to another. So initially an effort is required to get a continuous flow of thoughts and later on with practice, the upasana will be effortless like the flow of a river.
Upasana upon the Lord does involve duality initially. Because the one who is meditating, being the created, is different from the Lord, the creator. So for the meditator, the Lord is sarvajna, sarvashaktiman, sarvavyapi  and therefore infinitely superior to the meditator.
Thus in this kind of upasana also called as bheda upasana the basic attitude is ‘I am different from the Lord’. So one takes oneself to be limited to the body-mind and one is unable to see the identity of oneself with the Lord. Thus one is a devotee meditator, who looks upon Lord as separate from oneself as one’s well-wisher, support, guide, protector. This kind of meditation will give the drhsta-phalla of steadiness of mind and purification of mine. It will also give the adrshta phalla of punya, the Lord’s Grace.  For this type of bheda upasana the Lord can be invoked in any form and prayed to in any language. It is indeed noble and auspicious to mediate on the Lord in this manner.
However if the Lord is considered to be basically different from oneself, then one can never be free from one’s sense of limitation.  Thus in verse 8 Shri Ramana says :-
bhedabhaavanaat soham’ityasau
bhaavanaabhida paavani mataa
Instead of meditating with an attitude of duality (such as ‘I am different from the Lord’) the non-dual vision ‘He I am’ is purifying.
Thus one needs to progress from bheda upasana  to abheda upasana. How to progress? Firstly one can have full reverential trust in the fact revealed by the Scriptures that Lord and I are not different  - there is oneness between the Lord and I. One has deep love for the Lord, and one can’t bear to be separate from the Lord. So the attitude is of wanting oneness and one fuses with the Lord through bhakti in meditation. Eventually the grace earned through meditation, will lead you to a teacher who will unfold the oneness.
Shri Ramana points out that this attitude of oneness with the Lord is better than an attitude of being separate from the Lord.
The vision of the scriptures is “so’ham” which means ‘He I am’. How can this be so? That is unfolded in the teaching.
In Bhagavad-Gita and Tattvabodha we saw that the Lord is the conscious being, who is the intelligent cause as the creator, and who is the material cause of the universe as the very isness or existence of space and time and everything in space and time. That sat or isness is the fundamental material out of which everything is manifest. The universe is an effect and being an effect, the cause pervades the universe in a two-fold way – as the intelligence,as the all-knowledge that manifests as all the laws of cause and effect that pervades this universe of energy and matter. Scientists have also begun to understand oneness of the universe (saguna brahman). Here is what a scientist Gregg Braden writes;” We are not separate objects floating around in empty space, but part of an undulating, pulsing, multidimensional; uni-being organism from the realm of all suns and planets down to the sub-atomic quantum level.  All vibrating together at various frequencies, transmitting, absorbing, digesting, reflecting, radiating light and energy, endlessly held together by this invisible yet omnipresent force of consciousness.” The same scientist writes again “All things are interconnected through consciousness from the farthest reaches of outer space the macrocosm, to the farthest reaches of inner space, the microcosm and quantum physics – all are reflections of one thing.”
Our scriptures point out again and again that this Consciousness, the Lord, pervades the body-mind as the very intelligence that makes it what its is. The very same consciousness pervades the body-mind as the very fundamental  material of isness or existence. Skin is, bone is, flesh is, muscle is, gland is, cell is – It is the isness or sat taking on different forms  as skin, bone flesh, muscle, gland etc., – as feelings, thoughts, sensation, ego – as the diverse universe of sentient beings and insentient objects. When the Lord is everything in this universe, the body-mind in reality, belongs to the Lord. So where shall I put my ‘I’?
Who am I? Body, sense-organs, prana,  mind, intellect, ahankara,  the world – all these are objects of my knowledge. I am the subject, the one who knows them. In myself,  I am simple conscious being. Space and time are in my awareness. The universe is in my awareness. My mind is in my consciousness.  The intellect is in my awareness. Every thought, feeling, activity, sensation.... every experience of waking, dream and even deep sleep – are all in my awareness-consciousness. All these are objects of my consciousness. They come up, to go, in my consciousness. All these experiences are in time. Whereas the witnessing consciousness-awareness that I am, is always there. I am the fundamental consciousness, the fundamental level of existence who is not in time. This unchanging ever-present consciousness that I am, is the Lord – so’ham. He Indeed I am. When taught like this, we can directly see it and know it.
However our notions are very strong. And the so’ham meditation first as an upasana  in which I recognize that the body-mind cannot be separate from the Lord. Later in nidhidhyasana, I recognize that the fundamental consciousness that I am is indeed the Lord.
Shri Ramana points out that this abheda meditation is paavani mata -  that which is considered most sacred because it is based on truth and it free you forever from the sense of limitation that one has.
As Upasana, instead of invoking the Lord on a deity outside, one invokes the Lord within oneself because the Lord is all-pervading. In Upasana one must see the fact that the Lord pervades one’s body and mind being the nimitta-upadana karana. This kind of an upasana prepare you for self-knowledge.
It is worth noting that Taittiriya Upanishad says ‘uta antaram kurute atha tasya bhayam bhavati’ -  if one makes even the slightest difference between oneself and the Lord, one is fearful. Shastra consistently points out that where there is a belief in duality, there is the sense of limitations and so naturally there is either desire to complete oneself, or fear. Meditation on the identity between the Lord and I, on the other hand is paavani – most sacred as it destroys the sense of incompleteness  therefore eventually destroys the greatest of fears mrtyu bhayam.
Some people object to the attitude of non-duality saying that if I become God how can I love Him? Is God really another object whom I can love, like I love my parents and family? Shastra very practically points out that in reality we love only our self. How so? We love others because they are instrumental in bringing out the sense of purnata,  they bring out the pleased self in us. So what we love is really only our own pleased self. Husband loves his wife because she brings out his pleased self. So in love, in reality, there is no second thing. Not understanding this the person says ‘how can I love God if I become God’.
Love for the Lord is the most exalted love – it is called parama prema- in parama prema you cannot keep yourself separate from the Lord. You realize that the Lord is infinite – totally limitless – so how can the Lord exclude you? If Lord is separate how can the Lord be infinite? Can the limitless Lord be separate from the world? Can the limitless Lord be separate from ‘I’?
Proper enquiry will help you understand first that even as an individual , identified with the body-mind complex, you cannot be separate from the Lord. The next level of appreciation of the Lord is recognizing that as self-revealing, self-evident Consciousness, I am indeed  He. This is real bhakti where there is no duality possible. I simply fuses into the Lord.
This happens when the ahankara, the false-I, surrenders its notional ownership of the body-mind complex. Without self-knowledge, we take ourselves to be distinct entities separate from the Lord.  As a distinct entity I become an individual devotee of the Lord.
But the point is am I really a distinct entity separate from Bhagavan? As we saw earlier, my body,my mind, my intellect, all are included in the universe, which is the Lord. So I can never be separate from the Lord.
The only way I can be separate is through ignorance and ignorance born thinking and behaviour.
This understanding that everything belongs to the Lord is surrendering one’s notional ownership of everything including the body-mind. This is real bhakti. This is advaita bhakti.
Thus in the knowledge ‘I am the Lord – so’hum – there is no separation. Now is there a difference between bhakti and knowledge? Seeking knowledge of the Lord is also bhakti – not just puja japa etc. It is indeed most auspicious assimilating this advaita bhakti – hich we will see further in the next sessions.

Om Tat Sat

Friday, December 29, 2017

You are the witness of waking, dream and deep-sleep experience

Excerpt from a Satsang
As you have been seeing, Vedanta is a methodology of teaching, which reveals to you that you are self-evident, self-revealing consciousness that is neither matter nor energy.  In romantic language I can say you are Divine – by Divine I would mean you are something which is not of this world of matter and energy – you are non-material consciousness. The consciousness that you are is neither the body nor the mind. It is the permanent, independent reality that supports, sustains, illumines and enlivens the ever-changing mind, body and world. It is the invariable presence in every experience of waking, dream and deep-sleep, which can never be negated, which is always effortlessly present.,
The consciousness that you are is present in waking state. When waking gives way to the dream state, it does in the presence of the invariable consciousness that you are. When dream gives way to the deep-sleep state, the consciousness that you are is present. Consciousness is the sakshi, the one in whose presence these three states are illumined.
Each of these three states of experience, depends on consciousness to illumine them and enliven them. Like wave depends on water, the three states depend on consciousness.  Again like water is free of the wave, as the wave does not have an independent existence to  limit water in any way, so too Consciousness, being satya, absolute independent reality, is free of the three states which are mithya –  dependent, changing reality.
The question was asked atma kah?  Who is atma?  Who is the self?
To answer this,Vedanta being a teaching methodology, first negates what the self  is not. Why? Because there is already a firmly ascertained conclusion regarding who the self is. Each of us has a self-identity in place – which is a mixture of self (consciousness that is the non-negatable, permanent independent reality satyam)  and non-self (the dependent, changing reality of the body and mind). It is this mixture that poses as the self.
So Shruti (Vedanta) having to first point out that what is ‘I’ is indeed distinct from whatever it is taken to be says – the self is sthula-sukshma-karana-sharira vyatirikta.  The self, is neither the physical body, nor the mind, nor the causal ignorance. Nor is it the five levels of experiences of the body, vital energy, emotions, thoughts, ego or ignorance. In fact it is the avastha-traya-sakshi, the invariable self-evident consciousness in whose presence the waking state, dream and deep-sleep states are illumined, sustained and enlivened.
Thus the self-evident consciousness that one is, being SAT, is the independent reality that sustains every experience  and is yet uninvolved or unaffected by any experience.
This is not easy to accept. So some supporting logic is given. That everything is changing, and changing all the time, is a matter of our experience. To know change of state of being to another state of being, for any object – there must a changeless presence who witnesses the change. Shastra (Vedanta) points out that the consciousness that you are, is that changeless presence, who witnesses all the changes that take place in the three states of experience of waking, dream and deep sleep. You, the self-evident consciousness are invariable and changelessly present in every experience of waking, dream and deep-sleep.
Waking, dream and deep-sleep are states of experience – they come to go and you are changelessly present in all of them. This is a fact which one must know and assimilate.
The purpose of the avastha-traya-prakriya  is to highlight the fact that different experiences come to go ... in the changeless invariable presence that is the self-evident consciousness that is you.
Tattvabodha goes into detail of what is the waking-state, dream state and deep-sleep state. When you are experiencing waking states, you use your physical body, sense and mind and you are given the name Vishwa in that state.
When you are experiencing the dream-state you have withdrawn from the physical body and sense, yet your mind is active. Shastra gives you the name Taijasa in the dream state.
When you are experiencing the deep-sleep state you have withdrawn identification from the physical body and mind, only prana is functioning. In this state you are totally free of any limiting conclusion and so you have the name praajnah here. You, consciousness are present illumining the absence of the subject-object relationship. In waking and dream states, you experience the subject-object relationship. In deep-sleep state the mind is not active and so there is an absence of the subject-object relationship.
The example I usually give is that of a lighted room. There is a room with a central light. Many objects can be seen in the room as they are all illumined by that light. Now you remove all the objects in the room. The light continues to be there illumining the absence of all objects in the room.

You are consciousness endowed with 3 bodies – physical, subtle and causal - each more subtle than the previous.  Identified with all three of them you are a waker. But in yourself who are you – is the waker intrinsic to you? Is the waker you? Or is the dreamer you? Or is the deep-sleeper you?

Here is a crystal with a purple coloured cloth behind it. The crystal looks purple coloured. Yet if we think the purple colour belongs to the crystal that would be an error, because when you remove the cloth, you see the crystal is crystal clear! The purple cloth is an upadhi for the crystal – it makes the crystal appear to be other than what it is. So too the physical body, the subtle body and the causal body are upadhi’s for atma who is pure consciousness free of the physical body, the subtle body and the mind. If you take the self to be the physical body, the subtle body or the causal body it would be an error.
The crystal example is a good one. In reality the crystal is clear – do you really have to remove the purple cloth to render the crystal clear of the colour? I leave you with that question!

Om Tat Sat

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Nidhidhyasana- Baby Steps

Now comes a very important topic of this teaching – namely bringing it into my life, in my understanding of myself. My understanding of who I am, has to match with what we have studied. So before we get into the topic of samadhi, let us understand the few first steps.

The very first step is sharangati – so  the mind is free from seeking security and pleasure in anitya jagat and more or less free from fear, anxiety, hurt, guilt, anger, sadness and mental restlessness. This kind of mind-set is required for this study to become fruitful in one’s life.

The simple prayer I sent out today, is a prayer that is based on sharangati. It will bring about sharantagati. What was the prayer?

Om Harih Sharan

Om Vishwa-chaitanyaya namah

 O Lord, my profound thanks, a thousand, thousand times unto You who are all-powerful,all-knowing, who are here, there and everywhere.

 Whatsoever I am, whosoever I am, I am Your and Yours alone. You are my support, my Guide, my Protector.

 Your Divine Light  is always with me. Bless me, at all times, with unswerving devotion towards You, who are the Truth.

 Om Harih Sharanam

Om Vishwa-Chaitanyaya Namah

 Now assuming we have sharanagati we go ahead  in understanding the truth about ourselves.

Ask yourself, do I understand myself as self-evident consciousness. If I do not, then we must start there itself. Who am I? I am consciousness that is self-revealing. And everything else is an object of my consciousness. Is this clear to me? Do I understand myself as svaprakash chaitanyam?

If it is not clear to you totally – then ask yourself, who do I think I am? Many different ideas will come up. Your roles in life will certainly come up. So now examine them – are they not objects of your awareness, objects of your consciousness – because you know them. You are the knower of your roles, distinct from them. Can you see this clearly? If not, spend time understanding this fact.

As knower of the roles you assume, you are a conscious being. And nobody needs to tell you that you are conscious. You are self-evident consciousness, in whose presence the roles which involve identification with the instruments of body and mind, are known.  So do you understand that the body and mind are instruments of experience, rather than you. You are the conscious being who USES the mind and body, by identifying with them, to have different experiences. This consciousness that you are is a continuous constant presence – it is present in every experience of waking, dream and deep-sleep, witnessing as it were every experience.

This fact must become very very clear.

How to become clear about this? By spending dedicated time to see these facts again and again. When you are doing anything, just pause and step back, and ask yourself right now who am I? Am I what I objectify or am I the one who objectifies, using the mind as an instrument to objectify?

As the one who objectifies, am I not consciousness? For me to be consciousness, do I need anything else – do I really need a thought to be consciousness? Or is it that thought is revealed in my conscious  presence?

Just do this again and again – until you totally assimilate that you are self-revealing consciousness and everything else is an object of your consciousness. Body and mind are naturally included in objects of consciousness. And you are consciousness that is a continuous constant presence in every experience.

You go to the next step only after understanding the previous one. This assimilation you have to do. The teaching can only take you this far. The assimilation is to be done by each of us.

The next step is to understand very intimately that consciousness is the changeless, independent illuminator of every experience  and is not displaced by any experience. Use the example of light to understand this – is light displaced by whatever it illuminates? In the presence of light all objects are revealed. Whatever is seen does not in any way change the light does it? Light is formless, it pervades the objects illumined and yet it is never stained by them.

Similarly in the presence of the light of self-revealing consciousness that you are, every thought, feeling, decision, doubt, sensation, activity, body is revealed – they are all known, drshya and they have no power to change consciousness in any way. Again in terms of reality, they are mithya, so they cannot change consciousness. Like wave does not change water, or ornament does not change gold. Consciousness is not an object to be changed by another object. Consciousness that you are is SATYA- whereas drshya is mithya.

Again understand intimately that consciousness is the changeless principle because of which it is possible to know change. To know change, we need a changeless reference or substratum and consciousness that you are is that changeless substratum. The changeless nature of consciousness must be assimilated very thoroughly.

Spend time to assimilate the differences between consciousness-you and objects of consciousness. Consciousness is never an object. Drshya is ever an object. Consciousness is always present, always the same. Drshya is changing all the time. Consciousness is the independent reality, whereas drshya is dependent on many factors, and eventually dependent on consciousness. Drshya is jadam, not self-revealing. Whereas consciousness is self-revealing. Drshya is limited, consciousness is not.….. and so on and so forth.

So thus we need to spend dedicated time to assimilate what we have studied, so that we can own up the knowledge. That spending dedicated time is called as nidhidhyasana.

Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Upadesha Saram - Ramana Maharshi

1.कर्तुराज्ञया प्राप्यते फलम्। कर्म किं परं कर्म तज्जडम्।
The result of an action is obtained by the laws of the Lord. How can action, which is inert, be limitless?
कृतिमहोदधौ पतनकाराणम्। फलमशाश्वतं गतिनिरोधकम्।
Action is the cause for (one) to fall in the vast ocean of further action. The result of an action is limited and (hence) is an obstruction to (knowledge which is the direct means of) liberation.
ईश्वरार्पितं नेच्छया कृतम्। चित्तशोधकं मुक्तिसाधकम्।
Action done not out of desire and dedicated to the Lord, purifies the mind (and thereby) becomes the indirect means for liberation.
कायवाङ्मनःकार्यमुत्तमम्। पूजनं जपश्चिन्तनं क्रमात्।
The physical, oral and mental actions viz., ritualistic worship, chanting, meditation (on Him), are all most beneficial in that order.
जगत इशधीयुक्तसेवनम्। अष्टमूर्तिभृद्देवपूजनम्।
Serving the world with an attitude that it is the Lord, is the worship of the Lord of eight forms (five elements ie space, air, fire, water, earth; the Sun, the Moon and the conscious being)
उत्तमस्तवादुच्चमन्दतः। चित्तजं जपध्यानमुत्तमम्।
Compared to the loud singing of His praise, repeating His namealoud, (repeating) in a murmuror meditation in the form of mental (silent) chanting is better (in that order).
आज्यधारया स्त्रोतसा समम्। सरलचिन्तनं विरलतः परम्।
Unbroken thinking (of Him) like even the (unbroken) flow of ghee or the (effortless) flow of water (in a river) is better than interrupted meditation.
भेदभावनात् सोऽहमित्यसौ। भवनाभिदा पावनीमता।
Instead of meditating with an attitude of duality, (I am different from the Lord), the nondual vision ‘He I am’ is purifying – this is the view (of Sruti).
भवशून्यसद्भावसुस्थितिः। भावनाबालाद्भक्तिरुत्तमा।
The best devotion is abidance in one’s own Self, free from duality (of seer and seen) (brought about) by the strength of (repeated) contemplation (of He am I).
हृत्स्थले मनःस्वस्थता क्रिया। भक्तियोगबोधाश्च निश्चितम्।
Abiding of the mind in the heart (the core of myself) is action, devotion, yoga and knowledge. This is the confirmed view (of Sruti).

11 वायुरोधनाल्लीयते मनः। जालपक्षिवद्रोधसाधनम्।
Like a net for a bird, breath-control is a means for controlling the mind; by control of breathing, the mind is absorbed (but not resolved totally).
चित्तवायवश्चित्क्रियायुताः। शाखयोर्द्वयी शक्तिमूलका।
The mind and the prana are endowed with the ability to know and act, respectively. These two are like the two branches stemming from one power (Maya).
लयविनाशने उभयरोधने। लयगतं पुनर्भवति नो मृतम्।
There are two forms of control of the mind; laya, absorption and vinasha, destruction. The mind that has attained absorption is born again, but definitely not the mind that is dead.
प्राणबन्धनाल्लीनमानसम्। एकचिन्तनान्नाशमेत्यदः।
The mind that has gained absorption by control of breathing is destroyed once and for all by contemplating on the one non-dual Self.
नष्टमानसोत्कृष्टयोगिनः। कृत्यमस्ति किं स्वस्थितिं यतः।
For that exalted Yogi, whose mind is lost (totally resolved), and who has attined his own nature, is there anything to be done? (There does not remain anything to be done for him).
दृश्यवारितं चित्तमात्मनः। चित्वदर्शनं तत्वदर्शनम्।
One’s mind withdrawn from perceptions is the appreciation of Awareness (one’s real nature) which is appreciation of Truth.
मानसं तु किं मार्गणे कृते। नैव मानसं मार्ग आर्जवात्।
When an enquiry is undertaken as to the nature of the mind, it is found that indeed there is no mind, since there is directness in the enquiry.
वृत्तयस्त्वहं वृत्तिमाश्रिताः। वृत्तयो मनो विद्ध्यहं मनः।
Mind is thought-forms and the thought forms are but dependent upon the I-thought, ego. So know the mind to be the ego.(So enquiry into the mind is the same as enquiry into the I-thought).
अहमयं कृतो भवति चिन्वतः। अयि पतत्यहं निजविचारणम्।
Oh seeker! For the one, who enquires thus, “Where from does this ‘I’ arise?”, the I-notion drops. This is self-enquiry.
अहमिनाशभाज्यहमहन्तया। स्फुरति हृत्स्वयं परमपूर्णसत्।
When the ego (I-notion) is destroyed, the limitless, full, existence that is the Self, shines by Itself as I, I.... (‘I’ is self-shining).

इदमहम्पदाऽभिख्यमन्वहम्। अहमि लीनकेऽप्यलयसत्तया।
Even when the ego is resolved daily (in sleep) there remains the ‘I’ in the form of destruction-free Existence; this awareness ‘I’ is the implied meaning of the word ‘I’(the content of the ego).
विग्रहेन्द्रियप्राणधीतमः। नाहमेकसत्तज्जडं ह्यसत्।
I am not the body, sense organs, physiological functions, the mind or the ignorance. They are inert and hence unreal. I am the One, non-dual Existence.
सत्त्वभासिका चित्क्ववेतरा। सत्तया हि चिच्चितया ह्यहम्।
Where is another awareness to illumine the existence (I)? Awareness is in the form of existence (I) and I (existence) is in the form of Awareness. (The two are not different)
ईशजीवयोर्वेषधीभिदा। सत्स्वभावतो वस्तु केवलम्।
Due to the reality given to the costume (upadhi), there is the notion of division between the Lord and the jiva. But from the standpoint of the essential nature which is sat, the Truth is only one.
वेषहानतः स्वात्मदर्शनम्। ईशदर्शनं स्वात्मरूपतः।
By removal of these costumes) by proper enquiry) there is the appreciation of one’s own Self (free from all limitations), and that is the vision of the Lord as one’s own essential nature.
आत्मसंस्थितिः स्वात्मदर्शनम्। आत्मनिर्द्वयादात्मनिष्ठता।
The vision of one’s own Self is the well-abiding (of the mind) in the Self. Because of the non-duality of the Self, there is natural effortless abidance in the Self.
ज्ञानवर्जिताऽज्ञानहीनचित्। ज्ञानमस्ति किं ज्ञातुमन्तरम्।
Awareness is knowledge which is free from knowledge (of objects) and ignorance (of oneself and objects). Is there anything else to know?
किं स्वरूपमित्यात्मदर्शने। अव्ययाऽभवाऽऽपूर्णचित्सुखम्।
(With the enquiry) ‘What is the essential nature (of myself)?’,when  there is knowledge of the Self, there is Awareness (Self) that is happiness, ever full, (being) unborn and never waning.
बन्धमुक्त्यतीतं परं सुखम्। विन्दतीह जीवस्तु दैविकः।
The limitless happiness (that is the Self) is beyond bondage and liberation. The individual with divine qualities indeed attains it here and now (as a result of teaching).

अहमपेतकं निजविभानकम्। महदिदं तपो रमणवागियम्।
The destruction of the ahankara (as a result of enquiry), leading to the shining of the Self (knowledge of the Self) is indeed the greatest tapas, penance. These are the words of Ramana.
Om Tat Sat